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Colon Cancer Treatment

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The treatment of colon neoplasia is surgical. The intervention should be done as soon as possible, its type depending on the tumor location. The preoperatory evaluation will include the evaluation of lymph node extension and of metastases (pulmonary, hepatic or peritoneal). The postsurgical chemotherapy is indicated to patients in stages Dukes B2 and C. Schemes including 5 fluoro-uralic, asociated with folinic acid are used. considering the increasing survival postchemotherapy, it is indicated that, after surgery, the patient is sent to continue the treatment to the oncologist.
                                                          Fig.1 Colon Cancer
Radiotherapy is addressed especially to the rectal cancer, which, by its position in the small pelvis, cannot always be correctly eliminated.

The prophylaxis of colonic cancer represents an actual requirement of the medicine, regarding the place ranked by this neoplasia in the world.
- primary prophylaxis consists in measures of nourishment education, over a big number of years  trying to educate the population to consume mostly vegetables, a fibers - rich diet (whole meal, cereals), calcium and to reduce the fats, the protein excess (especially red meat).
- seccondary prophylaxis consists the removal of causes that might lead to a colonic neoplasm, especially the discovering of polyps and endoscopic polypectomia. The discovering of polyps in general population is quite difficult because of the immense number of endoscopic explorations that should be done. Therefore, tests type Hemoccult are recommended followed by colonoscopy in the persons found positive. The prophylactic colonoscopy must be also performed in persons with high risk of cancer: inflammatory bowel diseases, descendents of persons with colon cancer, colonic polyps history.

The molecular screening will represent in the future the ideal method of secondary prophylaxis, by noticing the genetic mutations predisposing to colon cancer.
After the surgical resection of a colon neoplasm, CEA may be used to show the possible local recurrences. The ultrasonography and CT for possible hepatic metastases are also useful.

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